Viernes, 23 Octubre 2015

Tenemos una historia narcótica

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Hoy son drogas ilegales. Pero, a pesar de los mitos sobre su consumo, no siempre lo fueron. «Desde el periodo prehispánico los pueblos, naciones e imperios primigenios de México usaban innumerables sustancias fantásticas…» [p. 21].

Y sobre las sustancias demonizadas por la política global antidrogas, como la mariguana, la cocaína, la morfina y la heroína, detrás de esos mitos tenemos historias sorprendentes.

¿Sabías, por ejemplo, que la mariguana fue importada por los colonizadores españoles como parte de la industrialización del cáñamo? ¿Qué la cocaína, así como la morfina y la heroína, fue creada por grandes laboratorios europeos y traída para usos médicos?

Durante la Colonia, la popularización de la mariguana entre la sociedad excluida la volvió peligrosa. A su vez, la cocaína y la morfina eran prescritas por médicos para ciertas patologías físicas o mentales, hasta que se descubrió que producían adicción.

Luego, en el siglo XIX se creó la heroína, considerada con virtudes médicas semejantes a las de aquellas, pero no adictiva. Cuando se determinó que las tres eran súper adictivas, se les prohibió, si bien los laboratorios europeos ya habían hecho grandes negocios.


Todo esto y mucho más, siempre en el contexto de la política global antidrogas definida por Estados Unidos desde mediados del siglo XX, nos cuenta el historiador y periodista sinaloense Froylán Encisco en Nuestra historia narcótica.

Es un fascinante compendio de historias publicadas originalmente como «Postales fantásticas» en Nuestra Aparente Rendición, para comprender la importancia de una política global antidrogas basada en derechos humanos y el aprendizaje de la historia.

«Al aproximarnos al México de nuestros días», apunta Lorenzo Meyer en el prólogo, «la observación directa, las entrevistas y las consideraciones del autor nos acercan también a la tesis central de Nuestra historia narcótica…: la legalización de las drogas prohibidas tras comprobar lo infructuoso de combatirlas a lo largo del siglo» [p. 17].


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