Martes, 27 Noviembre 2018

A casi diez años de «Campo Algodonero»

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A casi diez años de emitirse la sentencia del Caso González y Otras, mejor conocido como «Campo Algodonero», México es nuevamente juzgado ante la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos por un asunto relacionado, entre otros aspectos, con violencia por razones de género.

Si bien puede decirse que en la actualidad existe un andamiaje jurídico robusto sobre igualdad y prohibición de discriminación, al igual que para garantizar el acceso de las mujeres a una vida libre de violencia, y que el Estado mexicano ha destinado gran cantidad de recursos humanos y económicos [1] para atender esta problemática, la deuda persiste y se ha incrementado.

Ante tal realidad es dable preguntarse, ¿por qué la estrategia estatal no ha tenido el impacto esperado o satisfecho con celeridad sus expectativas?

Es indispensable profundizar en la comprensión del fenómeno: ¿Es resultado de una falla del sistema o una anomalía de origen? ¿Se debe “a un quiebre en la construcción del sujeto como actor o a una falla en la capacidad de los actores para mantener los procesos de interacción?”. [2]

En el análisis de la violencia y los factores que la ocasionan, aunado al estudio de los determinantes sociales que colocan a la mujer en una posición de género inferior a la del hombre, deben considerarse tanto a la persona agresora como al medio donde se desenvuelve, teniendo en cuenta que este es su catalizador y vehículo; ello permitirá conocer el trasfondo que la propicia.

En México la investigación científica se ha enfocado en producir información estadística indispensable para conocer la situación contextual, pero que no ofrece una explicación específica sobre las causas, consecuencias y procesos que experimenta quien comete esta violencia, a diferencia de la perspectiva sociológica, que permiten diseccionar este problema de raíz estructural, aspecto esencial para el diseño de políticas públicas integrales.

A su vez, las acciones para erradicar esta violencia se han centrado en aumentar las sanciones, crear tipos penales y establecer centros de atención multidisciplinaria para mujeres víctimas, por ejemplo. Aunque esto es correcto, también lo es que tales mecanismos que surten efecto una vez ocurridos los acontecimientos, pero no para revertir las circunstancias que los ocasionan.

Más allá de reflexionar sobre la efectividad del poder simbólico del derecho penal para abordar esta problemática, lo cuestionable es que haya sido la reacción primigenia del Estado [3] ante un fenómeno sistemático y de origen estructural. [4]

Cuando el Estado descansa en la aplicación de recursos punitivos resta la posibilidad a estrategias diseñadas con base en otras disciplinas que tienden a trabajar más a fondo el problema

Al respecto, la crítica al feminismo punitivo establece que la transformación social no puede suceder desde la ley penal, pues esta vía individualiza el conflicto, no da cuenta de sus causas ni lo resuelve de fondo. En este sentido se advierte que aunque hay una figura que considera el componente de género en la investigación de la muerte violenta de una mujer, los datos sobre el impacto que esta tipificación ha tenido en la disminución de los feminicidios no son muy alentadores.

¿Es la inclinación hacia el derecho penal lo que ha obstaculizado la efectividad de las acciones tendentes a erradicar la violencia de género?

El derecho penal representa el poder e intervención del Estado en la vida de las personas individualmente, en su máxima expresión. Dentro de las razones para cuestionar su idoneidad como herramienta para prevenir y disuadir están las de origen, al ser un recurso de limitado alcance y cimentado en las nociones que dan lugar al mal que se pretende erradicar, y las operacionales, como los agentes estatales con reticencia o falta de experticia para juzgar o conducir una investigación ministerial con perspectiva de género.

Cuando el Estado descansa en la aplicación de recursos punitivos resta la posibilidad a estrategias diseñadas con base en otras disciplinas que tienden a trabajar más a fondo el problema y, por consiguiente, a las herramientas que estas ofrecen para eliminar los factores que impiden el cese de la violencia contra las mujeres.

Por lo anterior, el diseño y aplicación de leyes y políticas públicas, además de sustentarse en evidencia, deben considerar la trascendencia de los procesos de socialización en la reproducción de la violencia y perseguir la disociación en la representación social de la mujer de nociones que la desvalorizan, así como la desactivación de los rasgos heterodesignados que desequilibran las relaciones entre los géneros.

[1] Según un estudio de 2015, en un año se destinó el 1.4% del Producto Interno Bruto para atender este problema, lo que equivale a 245 mil 118 millones 266 mil 538 pesos (unos 13 mil millones de dólares). “El costo de la violencia contra las Mujeres en México” (2016), disponible en https://oig.cepal.org/sites/default/files/el_costo_de_la_violencia_contra_las_mujeres_en_mexico.pdf

[2] Arteaga Botello, Nelson y Arzuaga Magnoni, Javier (2017). Sociologías de la violencia: Estructuras, sujetos, interacciones y acción simbólica. México: FLACSO

[3] En el informe “Violencia feminicida en México. Características, tendencias y nuevas expresiones en las entidades federativas, 1985-2010”, se afirma que “la tipificación del delito de feminicidio ha tomado un tiempo récord respecto a otros ejemplos similares, ya que en sólo dos años (de 2010 a 2012) se ha establecido en 20 entidades del país”. Cámara de Diputados, et. al. “Violencia feminicida en México. Características, tendencias y nuevas expresiones en las entidades federativas, 1985-2010”, p. 132. Editorial Sestante, primera edición (2012), disponible en http://observatoriofeminicidiomexico.org.mx/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/violFeminicMx-1985-2012-nal.pdf

[4] La tipificación continúa siendo una tendencia; en años recientes se incorporó a los códigos penales de las entidades federativas el delito de violencia obstétrica, así como el de violencia política.

Consulta también: 

Modificado por última vez en Martes, 27 Noviembre 2018 11:00
Rita Astrid Muciño Corro

Es maestra en Derechos Humanos y Democracia por la Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, con especialidad en Derechos Humanos por la Universidad Castilla La Mancha. En 2014 fue Visitante Profesional en la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. Se ha especializado en temas de igualdad y género, y su transversalización, así como en el análisis de las obligaciones internacionales del Estado de respetar, proteger, garantizar y promover los derechos humanos.

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