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Martes, 03 Noviembre 2015

Empatía y justicia

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Llegué por la mañana a una sala del penal de Chiconautla, en el Estado de México, para ver, por primera vez, una audiencia inicial. Solo estaba la persona imputada, encerrado en la «burbuja» —la jaula de cristal desde la que las personas asisten a sus audiencias en aquella entidad—. Lo miré unos minutos, en silencio: era apenas un chavito, tenía el cabello mal cortado y se veía melancólico, como acostumbrado a la mala suerte.

Cuando notó mi presencia me sonrió con alegría, como agradecido de que alguien lo acompañara. Su gesto fue tan cálido y simpático que me tomó por sorpresa, porque yo me había dejado llevar por la barrera física entre nosotros y solo pensaba en él de forma abstracta, como «el imputado».

Más tarde supe, por los datos que le dio al juez, que su nombre era Juan, un chico en situación de calle que vivía en un mercado de Ecatepec. No tenía identificación, desconocía su edad y solo sabía uno de sus apellidos. Estudió hasta cuarto de primaria y no tenía empleo ni ingreso fijo, ganaba 150 pesos ciertos días, repartiendo pollos.

La audiencia estuvo llena de aspectos indebidos. La primera cosa fue que su abogada defensora no parecía estar de su lado: llegó a leer la carpeta de investigación por primera vez, sin dirigirle la mirada ni hablarle; en vez de entrevistarse con él, le pidió al agente del ministerio público que lo interrogara porque ella tenía varias dudas, y por último compartió notas y documentos este agente.

Aunque el arresto de Juan había sido totalmente injusto el juez de control terminó declarándolo legal. Dos policías que caminaban por el mercado lo vieron a lo lejos y, dijeron en la audiencia, él «les sacó la vuelta» con un comportamiento «sospechoso». Esto bastó para que lo persiguieran y detuvieran. Enseguida lo esculcaron, encontrándole supuestamente un cigarro de mariguana, por lo cual lo llevaron al ministerio público.

Juan explicó que se alejó asustado porque eran los mismos policías que lo habían arrestado semanas atrás acusándolo de robo sin ninguna prueba, y negó que el cigarro fuera suyo, asegurando que los policías se lo habían «plantado». Nadie le creyó.

Para esa gente Juan era un pobre diablo sin importancia, cuyo lugar estaba en la cárcel

La abogada defensora no intentó advertir que no había flagrancia y que el cigarro de mariguana era una prueba obtenida ilegalmente; se enfocó en sostener que la posesión simple no era delito. A su vez, el agente del ministerio público solicitó que la acusación se reclasificara como narcomenudeo y el juez declaró legal la detención, considerando que aquel podía corregir sus errores durante la audiencia.

A continuación le impusieron una medida cautelar desproporcionada e injustificada. El agente del ministerio público solicitó la más dura, la «prisión preventiva», justificándolo porque los datos personales de Juan estaban incompletos —no obstante que era su deber obtenerlos—. La defensora no contestó nada, a pesar de que la justificación de dicho agente no cumplía con los requisitos para solicitar esa medida cautelar extrema. El juez los reprendió a ambos por sus deficiencias y decidió fijar una medida cautelar que nadie le había solicitado: como gesto de magnanimidad, ordenó una fianza de 12 mil pesos, sin que nadie cuestionara que esa cantidad era imposible de pagar para una persona como Juan y que, en la práctica, equivalía a imponerle «prisión preventiva».

Al inicio, la sonrisa de Juan me había servido para recordarme que era un ser humano, igual que yo, y eso me obligaba a ser empático con él. Esta conexión me hizo sentirme involucrado con su suerte y por eso me dolió el abuso de los policías que lo llevó a esa situación; la parcialidad del juez, que se ponía del lado del agente del ministerio público injustificadamente; la indolencia y falta de pasión de su abogada, y la medida cautelar que le quitó la libertad por ser pobre. Para esa gente era un pobre diablo sin importancia, cuyo lugar estaba en la cárcel.

Mil de detalles técnicos en nuestro nuevo sistema de justicia deben atenderse para que no haya más casos como el de Juan. Las prácticas policiales deben ser revisadas, la calidad de las argumentaciones en las audiencias necesita mejorar, para que haya debates reales, y los jueces deben ser más exigentes con los argumentos antes de aceptar quitarle la libertad alguien.

Sin embargo, para que prosperen esos esfuerzos debemos enseñar a los operadores del sistema a sentir empatía y preocupación por las personas, porque solo así serán sensibles ante la injusticia y tendrán motivación para ser mejores.

Consulta también:

Modificado por última vez en Miércoles, 18 Mayo 2016 12:54

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