Miércoles, 09 Mayo 2018

La Corte declara solo “parcialmente fundada” Acción de Inconstitucionalidad donde CNDH impugna artículos de Ley de Ejecución Penal por juzgarlos violatorios del derecho a la reinserción social y discriminatorios

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Esta mañana se publicó en el Diario Oficial de la Federación la sentencia de la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación sobre la Acción de Inconstitucionalidad 61/2016, promovida por la Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos (CNDH) contra párrafos de cinco artículos de la Ley Nacional de Ejecución Penal, al considerarlos violatorios de los derechos a la reinserción social, la igualdad y la no discriminación de las personas privadas de libertad.

Mediante dicha acción, en resumen, la CNDH pretendía que fueran invalidadas, por inconstitucionales, porciones de los artículos 36, 137, 139, 141 y 144 de la norma mencionada, al limitar indebidamente a las mujeres privadas de libertad de los derechos a la guarda y custodia de sus hijos (artículo 36), así como el acceso a libertad condicionada de las personas en prisión (137, 139, 141 y 144), contraviniendo las normas internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos.

La Corte resolvió que esta acción de inconstitucionalidad de la CNDH es solo “parcialmente fundada”, declarando improcedente su impugnación de los artículos 36 y 141, y desestimando su petición en torno al 137 y el 144.

En contraste, concedió la razón a la CNDH en cuanto al artículo 139, «en la porción normativa “no remuneradas”». Lo anterior se refiere a que hoy esta norma prevé que “de forma exclusiva” quienes realicen actividades no remuneradas podrán tener derecho a solicitar la reducción de sus obligaciones al serles impuesta la libertad condicional ―siendo excluidas, en cambio, aquellas que realizan actividades remuneradas.

En consecuencia, la Corte dispuso que ese fragmento del artículo 139 de la Ley Nacional de Ejecución Penal impugnado es, en efecto, inconstitucional, por lo cual el Congreso de la Unión deberá modificarlo para omitir tal distinción ―siendo retroactivos sus efectos a la fecha en la que dicha ley fue emitida (junio de 2016).

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